Our Contributions to History
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Contribute to Man’s Conquest of Air.
● If you’ve ever flown on a commercial jet airline, you’ve flown with our nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys.
● We have supplied cobalt- and nickel-base alloys for jet engines for more than 70 years, and our high-temperature alloys are used in almost all military jet engines.
● Cobalt-base HAYNES® 188 alloy allowed a 300°F increase in turbine inlet temperature and helped the U.S. Air Force’s F-15 Eagle’s two jet engines to produce 50,000 pounds of thrust.
● HASTELLOY® X alloy, another high-temperature superalloy, is used worldwide in jet engine burner cans, withstanding temperatures above 1,500° F for thousands of hours.
● STELLITE®1 hard-facing alloys were used in both Charles Lindberg’s and Amelia Earhart’s airplane engines.
● STELLITE® 21 alloy was used to prevent exhaust valve seat wear problems for the Douglas DC 3’s Pratt & Whitney R-1830 “Twin Wasp” radial engines. The first unit of the Douglas DC-3 aircraft was delivered in 1936, and many are still flying today, more than seven decades later.
● When Pratt & Whitney needed a reliable combustor for their new JT9D Turbofan engine to get the giant Boeing 747 off the ground, they made it from our HASTELLOY® X alloy.
● In the early years of the commercial jet age, airport runways were short. Thrust reverser units made using HASTELLOY® X alloy enabled many cities to be serviced by large, modern, jet aircraft.
● The amount of tubing needed for large aircraft can significantly add weight to a plane. When Boeing needed a high-strength and low-weight hydraulic flight control system to launch their 777 aircraft, they turned to our titanium tubing. Ti-3AL-2.5V alloy is not only lighter than stainless steels, it’s stronger as well.
● Our titanium hydraulic tubing, manufactured in our Arcadia, Louisiana, tubing plant, is used in more U.S. fighter aircraft than any other supplier’s product.
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Help Push Back the Frontiers of Space.
● More than 300 commercial and military space satellites have been launched with heavy-lift rockets using our cobalt-base superalloy.
● When the original U. S. astronauts needed their Mercury capsule and Atlas launch vehicle to get them safely into orbit and home again, our alloys helped provide a reliable ride. The shingles on the outer skin of the Mercury capsule were made from HAYNES® R-41 alloy.
● In the Atlas launch vehicle for the Mercury capsule, HASTELLOY® B alloy was the choice for inlet manifolds and reduction nozzles. STELLITE® 21 alloy was also chosen as the best material for all the important turbopump wheels.
● As hundreds of thousands of people watched in person, with millions more glued to their TVs, our alloys helped lift the Gemini astronauts off the launch pad and see them safely home at mission end. The Titan II launch vehicle for the Gemini program had two stage rockets. The rocket engines featured sets of internal shingles designed to protect the engine nozzles from hot spots. These shingles were made from HASTELLOY® C, MULTIMET® or HAYNES® 25 alloys.
● The Apollo space program to explore the moon employed 14 tons of STELLITE® alloys in each Saturn launch rocket. The U. S. Space Shuttle contained 54 components made from our alloys in each of its three main engines and in the turbopump to move fuel and oxidizer to the combustion area.
● In July 1969 when Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins went to the Moon in Apollo II, it took nearly 14 tons of products made from our alloys in their Saturn V rocket to get them there. F-1 rocket engines employed HAYNES® 713C alloy turbine blades, HASTELLOY® C alloy nozzle skirt extensions and heat exchangers, an HAYNES® R-41 alloy turbopump manifold, and HASTELLOY® W alloy weldments.
● Each Apollo moon rocket had over 2,000 precision investment castings made from our high-temperature superalloys.
● On the powerful Saturn V moon rocket, producing 7,500,000 pounds of thrust, our high-temperature superalloys were used in the turbopumps of all three rocket stages.
● NASA’s 30 years of Space Shuttle missions ended on July 21, 2011, when Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Our products were on board for the whole ride. The Space Shuttle’s main engines (SSMEs) were among the most critical of the vehicles systems. Of the engine parts, a total of 47 were made from our HAYNES® 188 alloy and seven from our HASTELLOY® B alloy. Our HASTELLOY® C-22® alloy was used in the fuel line bellows and helped to get the Shuttle off the ground.
● When NASA planned the first prolonged scientific studies on the surface of another planet; they designed the Viking Mars Landers’ terminal descent engines using Haynes’ alloys to ensure a soft landing!
● HAYNES® 25 alloy was used to make the Viking Lander thrust nozzles and used in a screen cover for cylinders in the catalyst bed. The cylinders were made of HASTELLOY® X alloy. The bulk of the three terminal descent engines were made using HASTELLOY® B alloy bar products.
● There are now pieces of HAYNES® 230® alloy on the surface of Mars! The alloy was used for the eight MR-80B 700-7 lb/f throttling lander engines of the Sky Crane delivery vehicle that lowered the Curiosity rover to the Martian surface. There were a total of 24 engines on the mission (eight of each engine), and all had our alloys on them.
● Our alloys were used on two types of thrusters on the Mars Science Laboratory mission. In addition to the MR-80B, our alloys were in the MR-107U. The MR-107U generates 68 pounds of thrust and was used for stability control during the early descent phase. The MR-80B is a variable thrust (8 pounds to 800 pounds) motor and was used on the sky crane for the final descent.
● The MR-80B engine is being considered for a Mars mission that would land on the surface, grab a sample, and return to Mars orbit for a trip back to earth.
● In recent news, our HAYNES® 230® alloy is used in the MR-80B throttling decent thrusters of the Sky Crane delivery vehicle that lowered the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover to the Martian Surface near the Jezero Crater. Perseverance joins its cousin, Curiosity, in the exploration of the Red Planet, and seeks to collect samples of rock and regolith (broken rock and soil) for possible return to Earth.
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Contribute to the Defense of Freedom.
● In World War I, our STELLITE® alloy machining tools made manufacture of critical war materials,such as the “Liberty” Engine on the DeHavilland DH-4 airplane, three times faster than The Liberty airplane engines that were manufactured by the Lincoln Motor Company. This aircraft type was also flown by Charles Lindbergh after the war for the fledging of U.S. Air Mail Service.
● During the Korean War, GE J-47 engine combustor cans and exhaust ducts made from our MULTIMET® alloy powered the North American F-86 “Sabre Jet” fighter. This turbojet engine produced almost 6,000 lbs of thrust, propelling the F-86 to near supersonic speeds.
Jackie Cochran was the first woman to break the sound barrier, flying an F-86 on May 18, 1953.
● We supplied several million pounds of 625 alloy sheet product for the heat recuperator module in the AGT-1500 turbine engine of the U.S. Army Abrams M1-A1 Main Battle Tank. This vehicle was highly successful in both Gulf Wars, displaying incredible speed and maneuverability.
● “Rosie the Riveter” worked for us here in Kokomo. About half of our workforces during World War II were women. Hundreds worked to produce precision investment cast turbine blades for military fighter and bomber aircraft turbo superchargers. Peak production rate was over two million blades per month.
● GE asked us to supply millions of buckets for aircraft superchargers by investment casting STELLITE®1 21 alloy during and after World War II. This was the first known application of the process to high-temperature superalloys.
● We supplied 70% of all turbine blades used in World War II fighter and bomber aircraft engine superchargers.
In total, we manufactured over 25 million turbo supercharger blades for military aircraft during World War II and the Korean War.
● In World War II, STELLITE®1 21 alloy investment cast turbo supercharger blades made the success of the B-29 “Superfortress” bomber possible. The Stellite Division supplied most of the cast blades for the GE type B-11 turbocharger used on the B-29’s Wright R-3350 18-cylinder radial engines.
● The B-17 and B-29 bombers, which helped to win World War II, could not have flown high above enemy ground fire without super turbocharged engines. The super turbochargers employed “buckets” produced by the investment casting process, pioneered by The Haynes Stellite Company.
● Machine gun barrel liners, made from STELLITE® alloys, were precision investment cast in Kokomo for use in the World War II, the Korean War, and Vietnam.
● We supplied over 40,000 scalpels to Army field hospitals during World War I.
● Our cobalt- and nickel-base alloys were used as reflectors in Navy searchlights up to 36” in diameter.
● Our alloys were used extensively in the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Help Protect Our Symbols of Freedom.
● After a century of exposure to the elements, the Statue of Liberty was finally closed for refurbishing in 1986. Corrosion had taken its toll. The structural integrity of the famous lady had been thoroughly compromised.
● Gustav Eiffel’s original iron bar inner framework, supporting the Bartholdi statue’s outer copper sheathing, was dangerously eaten away. Haynes International donated FERRALIUM® alloy 255 superstainless steel bars to the National Park Service for the repairs. We also donated HASTELLOY® C-22® alloy flat bars to help secure the spikes in Lady Liberty’s crown.
● FERRALIUM® alloy 255 superstainless steel bars, produced by Haynes under license from Langley Alloys, Ltd., arrived at Liberty Island in 1986.
● A series of 12 HASTELLOY® C-22® alloy straps, 0.4” thick and 3” wide, secure the seven spikes in the crown of Lady Liberty
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Enable the Practice of Modern Medicine.
● Pharmaceuticals are a matter of purity, and purity is a question of having material that doesn’t corrode in equipment. For years Eli Lilly, in Indianapolis, Indiana has looked to us for the answer. HASTELLOY® B alloy baskets and inner liners have been used in centrifuges since the 1950s.
● Pharmaceuticals provide essential therapeutic and curative medicinal effects for billions of people, despite the fact that they are often made from, or using, highly corrosive compounds. HASTELLOY® G-30® and C-22® alloys are two of our highly corrosion-resistant materials that have found significant use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
● Far less toxic than most other materials, our cobalt-base alloys have a long history of use for body implants, although that history didn’t start with humans. Back in the 1930s, the search was on for a material that would not react with the human body. In studies with dogs, it was found that cobalt-base, low-iron, low-nickel alloys provided the strength, durability, and low toxicity needed. As a result, our alloys have been a fixture in this application for over 80 years.
● Our cobalt-base alloys have been used for heart valves, artificial knee and hip joints, dental instruments, and surgical staples.
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Make it Possible to Protect the Environment.
● We all want to breathe clean air. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process that helps keep our air clean. Our corrosion-resistant C-family alloys are the most reliable materials for long-term, trouble-free service, and the most cost-effective choices of the planned life of most FGD units.
● Our HASTELLOY® alloys keep the lights on around the world.
● Our engineers pioneered a “wallpaper” technique that lines FGD ducts with our HASTELLOY® alloy sheet product. They found that 50 – 70% of the FGD duct weight could be saved using this technique.
The installed surface area in inlet/outlet ducts, breachers, absorber units and stacks around the world now total well over one million square feet.
● Land for municipal landfills has become a scarce resource. Some larger urban areas have chosen the municipal waste incineration alternative. In severe high-temperature environments like this, our alloys last and keep the garbage from piling up. HAYNES® 556® and HR-160® alloys are among few materials that can withstand the corrosive environment and high temperatures inside waste incinerators.
● HASTELLOY® C-22® alloy helps in the disposal of industrial, medical and nuclear waste. It has the versatility to work in a wide variety of environments, such as waste incineration and wastewater treatment. Its resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in wastewater treatment units or its resistance to strong concentrations of Plutonium nitrate and acid byproducts in nuclear vessels make it a confident choice for waste disposal.
Did You Know? Haynes’ Products Make it Possible to Develop Our Natural Resources.
● Our STELLITE® alloys were used extensively in the oil well drilling boom in the 1920s.
● When mother nature chose to hide her treasures deep in the earth, the Oil and Gas industry turned to our wear-resistant alloys to find them and get them to the surface. Teeth on rotating bits used for drilling were made from our wear-resistant tungsten carbide HAYSTELLITE family of alloys. This “go to” material was used to create long-lived, economic drill bits, drill head assemblies, and tools. Some are still in use today.
● Natural gas can often be downright unnatural. When energy companies find hydrogen sulfide contaminated “sour gas” they turn to our corrosion-resistant pipe and fittings for downhole solutions. Due to the severe contaminants, HASTELLOY® C-276 alloy quickly become the premiere material of choice, later followed by C-22® alloy, then the less expensive G-50® alloy, and today C-22HS® alloy.
● When Caterpillar Tractor Company wanted to ensure their “big cats” weren’t the source of mining maintenance outages, they chose lifetime roller seals made from our wear-resistant HAYNES® 93 alloy. This simple seal was capable of lasting the life of the entire roller assembly and never required greasing. Literally millions of the cobalt-chromium-tungsten-carbon 93 alloy castings were supplied for this application over the years.
● While open pit mining for phosphate rock using a drag line bucket the size of an automobile, W. R. Grace found bucket tooth service life was only one week. Hard-facing with HAYNES® wear-resistant alloy tripled the tooth life. Wear-resistant alloys have been widely used in the mining industry for digging, drilling, and cutting rock or ores. The applications continue to employ the same alloys today.