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HAYNES® Alloys

Welding

HAYNES® HR-235® alloy is readily weldable by Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) welding processes. For sheet welds and plate root passes, GTAW is suggested. For plate welds, GMAW is preferred. For GMAW, the pulsed spray transfer mode (GMAW-P) is highly suggested. The GMAW-P transfer mode is a stable, low spatter spray transfer at average current levels significantly below that for conventional spray transfer. This results in low-to-moderate weld heat input, which is important to maintain the material properties of Ni-base alloys.  Submerged arc welding (SAW) is not recommended as this process is characterized by high heat input to the base metal and slow cooling of the weld. The welding characteristics of HR-235® alloy are comparable to the highly weldable “C-type” alloys and the same general welding guidelines apply. Compared to other metal dusting resistant Ni-base alloys, HR-235® alloy exhibits excellent weldability. For further welding details, please click here for the Welding and Fabrication guide, which contains general welding guidelines applicable to HR-235® alloy.

Heat Treatment

Wrought forms of HR-235® alloy are furnished in the solution annealed condition, unless otherwise specified, and should be welded in this condition. Welding of cold-worked materials is strongly discouraged, since it accelerates precipitation of secondary phases and induces residual stresses. As such, a full solution anneal in the range of 2100-2150°F (1149-1177°C), depending on specific requirements, followed by rapid air cool or water quench is suggested. Water quenching is recommended when annealing heavy section components and cold-worked structures prior to welding.

Base Metal Preparation

The joint surface and adjacent area should be thoroughly cleaned before welding. All grease, oil, crayon marks, sulfur compounds, and other foreign matter should be removed. Contact with copper or copper-bearing materials in the joint area should be avoided. It is preferable, but not necessary, that the alloy be in the solution-annealed condition when welded.

Filler Metal Selection

For GTAW and GMAW, HR-235® bare filler wire is suggested. For dissimilar metal welds involving HR-235® alloy, please consult with Haynes International for suggested filler metals.

Preheating, Interpass Temperatures, and Postweld Heat Treatment

Preheat is not required and is generally specified as room temperature. Preheat should not be used if the base metal to be welded is above 32°F (0°C). To minimize the precipitation of second phases in regions affected by the heat of welding, a maximum interpass temperature of 200°F (93°C) is recommended for HR-235® alloy. Auxiliary cooling methods may be used between weld passes, as needed, providing that such methods do not introduce contaminants. Post-weld heat treatment is not normally required or suggested for HR-235® alloy. Heat treatment of welded fabrications may be required for other reasons, such as stress relief.

Tensile Properties of Welded Material

Transverse Tensile – GTAW Welded Sheet

Temperature 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation
°F °C ksi MPa ksi MPa %
RT RT 88.1 607 105.3 726 30
200 93 43.6 300 94.0 648 43
400 204 43.1 297 99.5 686 42
600 316 38.8 268 82.6 570 26
800 427 35.3 243 76.5 527 27
1000 538 37.6 259 86.1 594 38
1200 649 32.8 226 65.1 449 25
1400 760 28.2 194 54.3 374 22
1600 871 22.1 152 29.6 204 31
1800 982 11.0 76 15.9 110 34
2000 1093 5.3 37 7.7 53 37

Transverse Tensile – GTAW Welded Plate

Temperature 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation
°F °C ksi MPa ksi MPa %
RT RT 65.3 450 112.3 774 51
200 93 56.2 387 89.8 619 19
400 204 48.2 332 96.4 665 41
600 316 45.6 314 90.0 621 40
800 427 42.3 292 89.1 614 44
1000 538 44.1 304 74.2 512 23
1200 649 38.1 263 73.5 507 30
1400 760 37.1 256 60.8 419 13
1600 871 23.9 165 33.1 228 25
1800 982 12.3 85 17.9 123 17
2000 1093 7.2 50 9.8 68 19

AWM (All Weld Metal) Tensile – GTAW

Temperature 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation Reduction of Area
°F °C ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
RT RT 80.0 552 115.3 795 26 30
200 93 69.2 477 101.2 698 31 32
400 204 66.7 460 98.3 678 27 27
600 316 67.0 462 94.4 651 26 35
800 427 63.0 434 89.9 620 30 30
1000 538 58.9 406 82.5 569 29 37
1200 649 52.0 359 71.6 494 22 31
1400 760 48.3 333 64.8 447 16 24
1600 871 26.3 181 36.3 250 21 23
1800 982 15.3 105 20.7 143 15 10
2000 1093 9.1 63 12.0 83 20 15
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