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HAYNES® Alloys

Welding

HASTELLOY® X alloy is readily welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), and resistance welding techniques. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is not recommended as this process is characterized by high heat input to the base metal and slow cooling of the weld.  These factors can increase weld restraint and promote cracking.

Base Metal Preparation

The welding surface and adjacent regions should be thoroughly cleaned with an appropriate solvent prior to any welding operation.   All greases, oils, cutting oils, crayon marks, machining solutions, corrosion products, paint, scale, dye penetrant solutions, and other foreign matter should be completely removed.  It is preferable, but not necessary, that the alloy be in the solution- annealed condition when welded.

Filler Metal Selection

HASTELLOY® X filler wire (AWS A5.14, ERNiCrMo-2) is recommended for joining X alloy by Gas Tungsten Arc or Gas Metal Arc welding.  Coated electrodes of X alloy are also available for Shielded Metal Arc welding in non-ASME code construction.  For dissimilar metal joining of X  alloy to nickel-, cobalt-, or iron- base materials, X filler wire, HAYNES® 556® alloy (AWS A5.9 ER3556, AMS 5831) , HASTELLOY® S alloy (AMS 5838) or HASTELLOY® W alloy (AMS 5786, 5787) welding products may all be considered, depending upon the particular case. Please click here or the Haynes Welding SmartGuide for more information.

Preheating, Interpass Temperatures, and Post- Weld Heat Treatment

Preheat is not required. Preheat is generally specified as room temperature (typical shop conditions).   Interpass temperature should be maintained below 200°F (93°C). Auxiliary cooling methods may be used between weld passes, as needed, providing that such methods do not introduce contaminants.  Post-weld heat treatment is not generally required for X alloy.  For further information, please click here.

Nominal Welding Parameters

Details for GTAW, GMAW and SMAW welding are given here. Nominal welding parameters are provided as a guide for performing typical operations and are based upon welding conditions used in our laboratories.

Mechanical Properties of Welded Material

Room Temperature Hardness of Welded Sheet

Weld Method Test Area HRB
Shielded Metal Arc
(covered electrodes)
Weld Area 92
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91
Gas Tungsten Arc
(TIG)
Weld Area 89
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91
Gas Metal Arc
(MIG)
Weld Area 90
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91

Note: Sheet was solution heat-treated prior to welding. Hardness was determined at room temperature in the as-welded condition.
HRB = Hardness Rockwell “B”.

Average Short-term Tensile Data, Cold-reduced and Welded 0.109 in. (2.8mm) Sheet

Condition Form 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength
- - ksi MPa ksi MPa
As Cold-reduced Reduced 5% 82.0 565 123.0 848
Reduced 15% 106.0 731 137.0 945
Reduced 30% 137.0 945 161.0 1110
Cold-reduced and
Welded, As Welded
Reduced 5% 68.0 469 114.9 792
Reduced 15% 72.1 497 113.1 780
Reduced 30% 69.9 482 112.9 778

NOTE: All cold-reduced sheet and the various weld samples were produced from material which had been solution heat-treated prior to cold reduction or welding. All data were obtained at room temperature and are the result of a limited number of tests.

Average Tensile Data, Weldments

Condition Weld
Method
Material 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation
- - - ksi MPa ksi MPa %
As-Welded Shielded Metal Arc
(covered electrodes)
Sheet, 0.125 in. (3.2mm) 55.2 381 110.2 760 26
Plate, 0.250 in. (6.4mm) 56.7 391 109.8 757 26
Plate, 0.375 in. (9.5mm) 55.4 382 110.2 760 26
As-Welded Gas Tungsten Arc (TIG) Sheet, 0.125 in. (3.2mm) 59.1 407 110.2 759 26
Plate, 0.250 in. (6.4mm) 53.1 365 107.1 738 25
Plate, 0.375 in. (9.5mm) 54.9 379 107.6 742 22
As-Welded Gas Metal Arc
(MIG)
Sheet, 0.125 in. (3.2mm) 53.1 366 103.7 715 22
Plate, 0.250 in. (6.4mm) 55.0 379 110.8 764 33
Plate, 0.375 in. (9.5mm) 57.0 393 106.4 734 24

All Weld Metal

Test Temperature 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation
°F °C ksi MPa ksi MPa
RT RT 66.4 458 98.6 680 28 in 1 inch
600 316 52.1 359 80.4 554 27 in 1.125 inches
1000 538 49.2 339 76.3 526 28 in 1.125 inches
1500 816 38.2 263 56.7 391 45 in 1.125 inches

RT= Room Temperature

Average Welded and Aged Tensile Data, Room Temperature*

Form Aging Temperature Aging Time 0.2% Yield Strength Ultimate
Tensile Strength
Elongation
- °F °C h ksi MPa ksi MPa %
Plate 1/2 in (12.7mm) thick 1600 871 8000 47.9 330 109.0 752 22
Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Plate,

1/2 in. (12.7mm)
thick

1200 649 1000 66.0 455 126.9 875 33
4000 86.5 596 150.1 1035 19
8000 82.9 572 145.5 1003 18
1400 760 1000 58.2 401 128.2 884 19
4000 62.3 430 127.4 878 18
8000 62.3 430 125.2 863 15
1600 871 4000 49.7 343 105.3 726 15
8000 46.9 323 98.0 676 16
All Weld Metal** 1200 649 1000 87.5 603 123.0 848 8
4000 86.0 593 139.3 960 8
8000 86.8 598 131.8 909 9
1400 760 1000 62.7 432 113.5 783 12
4000 60.6 418 110.5 762 6
8000 59.8 412 97.7 674 7
1600 871 1000 48.3 330 92.8 640 9
8000 46.3 319 92.7 639 11

*Test data for each form are from a single heat. 
**Single test data. 
Gas tungsten arc welded.

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